Ancient Chiang Mai Volume 3 (Cognoscenti Books)
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Mangrai moved the capital several times. He founded Chiang Mai in , expanding it to become the capital of Lan Na.
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He also reduced to vassaldom and received tribute from areas of modern Northern Vietnam, principally in the Black and Red river valleys, and most of Northern Laos, plus the Sipsongpanna of Yunnan where his mother originated. Mangrai's youngest son, ruler of Mong Nai returned to claim the throne, occupying Haripunjaya. Saen Phu and his brother Nam Thuem fled to their father in Chiangrai. Nam Tuam succeeded in driving out their uncle, restoring Saen Phu onto the throne in or Saen Phu founded the city of Chiang Saen in or , before he died in His son Kham Fu replaced him but reigned only few years, before he was succeeded by his son Pha Yu, who restored the capital to Chiang Mai again.
There he fortified the city and built Wat Phra Singh.
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Lan Na enjoyed peace under Saenmuengma which means ten thousand cities arrive — to pay tribute. The only disturbing event was the failed rebellion by his uncle Prince Maha Prommatat. Maha Prommatat requested aid from Ayutthaya. Borommaracha I of Ayutthaya sent his troops to invade Lan Na but was repelled. This was the first armed conflict between the two kingdoms. The Lan Na kingdom was strongest under Tilokkarat — Tilokkarat seized the throne from his father Sam Fang Kaen in Tilokkarat's brother, Thau Choi, rebelled to reclaim the throne for his father and sought Ayutthayan support.
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Borommaracha II sent his troops to Lan Na in but was repelled and the rebellion was suppressed. Tilokkarat conquered the neighboring Kingdom of Payao in To the south, the emerging Kingdom of Ayutthaya was also growing powerful. Relations between the two kingdoms had worsened since the Ayutthayan support of Thau Choi's rebellion. In , Yutthitthira, a Sukhothai royalty who had conflicts with Trailokanat of Ayutthaya, gave himself to Tilokkarat.
In , the governor of Chaliang surrendered to Tilokkarat.
Trailokanat then used a new strategy and concentrated on the wars with Lan Na by moving the capital to Pitsanulok. Lan Na suffered setbacks and Tilokkarat eventually sued for peace in Tilokkarat was also a strong patron of Theravada Buddhism. Tilokkarat also built and rehabilitated many notable temples. In , Tilokkarat sent aid to help the King of Lan Xang to free his kingdom from Vietnamese occupation. After Tilokkarat, Lan Na was then subjected to old-style princely struggles that prevented the kingdom from defending itself against powerful growing neighbors.
The Shans then broke themselves free of Lan Na control that Tilokkarat had established. The last strong ruler was Paya Kaew who was the great-grandson of Tilokkarat. In , Kaew invaded Ayutthaya but was repelled — only to be invaded in turn in by Ramathibodi II and Lampang was sacked. In , a dynastic struggle occurred in Kengtung State. One faction sought Lan Na support while another faction went for Hsipaw. Kaew then sent Lan Na armies to re-exert control there but was readily defeated by Hsipaw armies.
The loss was so tremendous that Lan Na never regained such dominance. However, Ketklao was restored in but suffered mental illness and was executed in The Playhouse Theatre, on Chang Puak road in the old city, offers nightly shows and entertainment, performed by Thai national performers, featuring contemporary jazz, ballet and tap dance performances; the seat venue also offers a unique Lanna dining experience, surrounded by mountains and waterfalls. Karaoke lounges can be found throughout the city, with many found on Chiang Mai Land Road; some very large establishments exist along the length of Chang Klan Road, extending south from the night bazaar.
Go-go bars can be found in Chiang Mai, but they are less significant in comparison to karaoke venuesFoxy Lady Night Bazaar, off Thaphe Rd, is one such bar. Activities The Chiang Mai Zoo is the oldest zoo of northern Thailand, and sprawls over an enormous tract of land. Shopping: Chiang Mai has a large and famous night bazaar for local arts and handicrafts. The night bazaar sprawls across several city blocks along footpaths, inside buildings and temple grounds, and in open squares.
A handicraft and food market opens every Sunday afternoon till late on Rachadamnoen Road, the main street in the historical centre, which is then closed to motorised traffic. Every Saturday evening a handicraft market is held along Wua Lai road, Chiang Mai's silver street  on the south-side of the city beyond Chiang Mai gate, which is then also closed to motorized traffic. Thai massage: The back streets and main thoroughfares of Chiang Mai have an abundance and variety of massage parlours which offer anything from quick, simple, face and foot massages, to month-long courses in the art of Thai massage.
Horse racing: Every Saturday starting at are the races at "Kawila Race Track" and betting on the horses is legal. A number of bus stations link the city to central and northern Thailand. The Central Chang Pheuak terminal north of Chiang Puak Gate provides local services within Chiang Mai Province and the Chiang Mai Arcade bus terminal northeast of the city requires songthaew or tuk-tuk ride, see below provides services to over 20 other destinations in Thailand including Bangkok, Ayutthaya, and Phitsanulok.
There are several services a day from Chiang Mai Arcade terminal to Bangkok a hour journey. The state railway operates 14 trains a day to Chiang Mai Station from Bangkok. Most journeys run overnight and take approximately hours. Most trains offer first-class private cabins and a second-class seats fold out to make sleeping berths service..
No trains are available to cities north of Chiang Mai. International departure hall at Chiang Mai Airport Chiang Mai International Airport receives up to 28 flights a day from Bangkok flight time about 1 hour 10 minutes and also serves as a local hub for services to other northern cities such as Chiang Rai, Phrae and Mae Hong Son.
International services also connect Chiang Mai with other regional centers, including cities in other Asian countries. The local preferred form of transport is personal motorbike and, increasingly, private car. Local public transport is provided in four forms: tuktuks, songthaews, less frequently rickshaws and the recently re-launched, though infrequent, Chiang Mai bus service. Local songthaew fare is usually Thai baht per person for trips in and around the city.
If the group of people is larger, the fare per person will be less. Tuk-tuk fare is usually at least 20 baht per trip comfortable for two, but some can squeeze in four passengers ; fare increases with distance. Chiang Mai's local bus service was relaunched in It serves routes in and around the city, although the service itself lacks the frequency and network available in other major cities.
Chiang Mai 10 Tourism Courtyard of Wat Phrathat Doi Suthep The Tourism Authority of Thailand's TAT website promotes the city as "a place where both backpackers and luxury tourists can enjoy the ultimate Thailand holiday", as the city is "one of the few places in Thailand where it is possible to experience both historical and modern Thai culture coexisting side by side: the city features centuries-old chedis and temples next to modern convenience stores and boutique hotels. More than 80 per cent of the film was shot in the northern province. However, the influx of tourists has put a strain on the citys natural resources.
Faced with rampant unplanned development, air and water pollution, waste management problems and traffic congestion, the city has launched a non-motorised transport NMT system. The climate compatible development strategy has gained support from policy-makers and citizens alike as a result of its many benefits.
This issue has been acknowledged for some time. Back in , speaking at the Fourth International Network for Environmental Compliance and Enforcement conference, which was held in Chiang Mai in that year, the then governor of Chiang Mai, Virachai Naewboonien invited guest speaker Dr.
Wongburanawatt stated that back in , there were already increasing numbers of city residents coming to hospitals suffering from respiratory problems associated with city air pollution. During this period, unlike the majority of the year, air quality in Chiang Mai often remains below recommended standards with fine-particle dust levels reaching twice the standard. The northern centre of the Meteorological Department has reported that low-pressure areas from China trap forest-fire smoke in the mountains along the Thai-Myanmar border.
To address the increasing greenhouse gas emissions from transport in Chiang Mai, the city government has advocated the use of non-motorised transport NMT. In addition to its potential to reduce greenhouse emissions, the NMT initiative addresses other issues such as traffic congestion, air quality, income generation for the poor and the long-term viability of the tourism industry. Street food at the Sunday Evening Market. Selling umbrellas at the Sunday Evening Market.
A soi northeast of the city center A police tuktuk at Tapae Gate. A street scene in Chiang Mai, showing center right , a gate of the old city wall. Looking south along the eastern moat of the historical city center of Chiang Mai. The road on the right is Moon Muang, on the left, Chaiya Poom. Retrieved on Chiang Mai ,Cognoscenti Books, Chiang Mai , Cognoscenti Books, Read Free For 30 Days.
Hiroshige was nothing if not prolific, creating more than 8, art works in the course of his life, perhaps the most celebrated of which remains his ' Famous Views of Edo', presented here in its entirety with new text and full colour images. The present study brings together 'Ancient Chiang Mai' articles , all published in Belief in dragons has united humanity more than the belief in any other mythological creature. Even today dragons continue to fascinate.
In the 21st century, far from disappearing, dragons and dragon lore have spawned a wide range of fantasy books, games, TV series and movies that are enduringly popular worldwide - as indeed are dragon tattoos. Ernest Ingersoll's classic study of Dragons and Dragon Law is here reproduced, together with a new introductory essay by Daniel Henley and a unique collection of full colour high definition dragon images from across the world. Composed by the guru and sage Padmasambhava in the 8th This illustrated version combines the English language text by Walter Evans-Wentz with a unique collection of 80 pictures relating to the Tibetan Buddhist tradition.
Hitchhiker's Guide to the Galaxy on Lan Na
First produced in Italy around , it was aimed at an educated secular readership and offered concise and sensible advice on The Latin text describes in detail the beneficial and harmful properties of plants and foodstuffs, as well as considering social, physiological and psychological aspects of wellness, and is accompanied by full colour images from 6th century Byzantium, 11th century Iraq and 14th century Italy.
For much of the second half of the 20th century Cambodia was racked by war and famine. Considered a sideshow in the Vietnam War, the country was nevertheless invaded by both North and South Vietnam,